# Clack Static Asset Middleware

Tagged as Code, Lisp

Written on 2016-05-12 02:01:00

As part of my glacial march to get Knttl running the way I'd like, I wrote a middleware for the clack web framework to help me out!

When you're serving javascript and css files for a website, you want to inform the browser to keep a local copy as long as possible, because then it won't bother your webserver to download it again and the page will render faster for your users, too. There's a popular quote about programming

There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things.
It seems this was said by a Phil Karlton.

So, like many things related to the it-was-never-meant-to-be-used-this-way world of web technology, there are some interesting best practices that evolved around this idea that, ideally, only one copy of a static file should ever need to be sent to a user, if their browser works well.

There are ways to tell a browser how long to hold onto a file before checking if there's a new version of it, but that only gets you so far. Presumably, your javascript is going to change, some day, and then you'll feel silly when all of your users are still running a three week old version of it that's still cached by their browsers.

The next bit is the hack that makes it all shine.

"Why not just change the filename when the file's contents change?" asked some bright engineer, somewhere. So, we do. We just attach a hash of the file to the filename and serve that. When the file changes, the filename we show the web browser changes, and we can tell the browser to just cache the file forever, or as close to forever as we can!

It's kind of a pain to generate a copy of all of your files with hashes attached, so what clack-static-asset-middleware does is store calculate some hashes of your files and just pretends those files exist and serves up whatever you tell it about.

I also wrote some helpers you can load to use this stuff easily with Djula, like so:

<a href="/" class="logo u-pull-left" title="Home">  <img src="{% asset-path "small-logo.png" %}"       width="54" height="60"       alt="Knttl" /></a>
So, to summarize:
1. Have style.css
2. Template asks for hashed filename, gets something like style_2867f3f83a6a91ad4a19a6cd45536152.css
3. Browser asks for style_2867f3f83a6a91ad4a19a6cd45536152.css
4. Server says "Aha! I have fooled you! Here's style.css! Keep it as long as you like!"
5. Browser says "Golly gee! I will, mister Server! I'll never ask for style_2867f3f83a6a91ad4a19a6cd45536152.css again!"
6. Hooray!
So check out clack-static-asset-middleware, which will hopefully be in quicklisp soon!